What Is Evolutionary Economics?

Haven’t heard of evolutionary economics? It’s not surprising. This is a new area of study that looks into the biological and evolutionary forces that shape our economic decisions. It is related to behavioral economics, another discipline you don’t hear much about.

The behavioral perspective is more about describing what we do, while the evolutionary perspective is all about hypothesizing why we do it. For example, let’s look at an experiment that economists call the ”Ultimatum Game.” It is typically played with two subjects.

The pair is given $100 to split between them. Player one is allowed to propose any division of the money. He can suggest that he gets $75, for example, while the other ”player” gets $25. Whatever he proposes, Player two can say yes, and then each will get his or her designated share, or he can say no, in which case neither gets a penny.

Now, if you understood what was just explained, you can see that rationally, player two should always say yes. After all, even if the split proposed is $95 and $5, the $5 is still better than nothing, right? Financially speaking, there is nothing to be gained by saying no (it should be noted that players know they won’t be playing again, so a reputation for turning down a low proposal buys them nothing).

What actually happens? People mostly accept what are considered ”reasonable” proposals, the obvious one being a 50/50 split. We would probably all expect this. On the other hand, despite getting no money at all for their refusal, most players turn down proposals that give them less than 30% of the money.

Why is that? The explanation many give is simply that it isn’t fair. Evolutionary economics hypothesizes that we have a built-in sense of ”reciprocal altruism,” which evolved over tens of thousands of years, and this emotional reaction demands fairness. There must have been some advantage to the human species to maintain this ”justice,” even at the expense of personal gain.

Monkey Economics

Interestingly, even chimpanzees and monkeys share this sense of fairness. For example, in one experiment at Emory University, when two primates participate in a mutual task for which one is rewarded, the second one will stop helping out in future tasks if the first does not share the rewards fairly.

Interestingly, they also share with humans the extreme and seemingly irrational tendency to hurt their own self interest in order to protest injustice. For example, capuchin monkeys were trained to trade a stone for a cucumber slice, a worthwhile exchange from their perspective, given the usual 95% cooperation when the cucumber was offered. But when a second monkey was seen to be given a grape – which is more highly valued -? the monkey getting the cucumber slice didn’t exchange so often. The cooperation rate dropped to 60%, and the monkeys sometimes simply refused to take the slice at all. They would actually go hungry rather than be ”taken advantage of” in an unfair trade.

Apparently all primates including us have evolved a emotional feeling of justice. It may have helped maintain harmony in the small groups we lived in thousands of years ago. This is the common evolutionary view. Of course, why don’t hundreds of millions of modern workers refuse to work for a living while others make ten times more for the same effort? Perhaps it is a matter of proximity (most low wage workers are around others who make the same low wages). Or it might seem just too irrational to starve for a feeling of fairness.

On the other hand, it is quite likely that in addition to the irrational responses to the ”Ultimatum Game,” we can identify many self-defeating economic behaviors that people regularly engage in. They result from the hard-wiring of our brains, according to the theories of evolutionary economics. Fortunately, our ”software” or conscious mind can evolve more quickly.


Copyright Steve Gillman. To learn more Evolutionary and Behavioral Economics, and to get free e-courses and e-books, visit: http://www.unusualwaystomakemoney.com/

Why people have to oversee PepperFry Complaints

There are many companies that are hanging by a thread. Once the thread weakens and gives up, the entire corporation is doomed. Due to inflation even banks and other money lending institutions have increased their interest rates. They are struggling to maintain a balance in the financial world while the country pays off the loans. Due to this predicament, companies are finding it hard to pay remuneration to employees. Sales have hit a lull and production is in full swing. The survival chances of every company remain fifty-fifty. Undoubtedly profits are average thus downsizing is considered as a wise decision. The struggles of people have increased due to a sudden rise in unemployment. The employed as well as unemployed have been grappling with jobs that are handful.

The employed populace has grievances that are unheard by the company. A corporate job demands physical and mental presence and wants the employees to be on their toes at all times. Employees sacrifice their social and personal commitments so that the situation in the company stabilises. However their efforts go in vain. They work hard and receive meagre remuneration. There is no option but to work. Leaving a job has adverse consequences which they foresee failing to face. There have been many adverse situations prevalent in the world due to the economic debacle. Companies have been planning to set up a branch across borders to avail cheap labour while their countrymen suffer. These situations tend to increase regional disparities. Internet has found a solution to all these worsening predicaments. The internet has emerged as the only marketing tool that has a 100% output ratio. Marketers have started advertising and marketing their products online to attract a huge market stake. The online competition is fierce and every marketer lives by the adage ?survival of the fittest?. It has become a norm to introduce every product online because it is free of cost. Moreover marketers believe if you want to gain attention of the youth, then online is the perfect medium. This is the sole reason of the emergence of online shopping websites.

This modern epoch is blessed with its fair share of advantages. The technological breakthroughs in Internet have made the new generation tech savvy. Televisions, mobile phones and tablets have become important links that provide Internet. Online shopping website has become the one-stop outlets for the youth to satisfy their increasing demands. However due to happenstances like?PepperFry Complaints?and other scams, these websites were avoided earlier.?PepperFry?Complaints?and other reviews argued that the personal and financial details of customers were used to scam them. There were few cases wherein the customers were left bankrupt. To avoid such consequential situations website owners introduced cash on delivery. This mode of payment gives the customer the liberty to pay for the product once he receives the package.


The Author loves shopping online from?Pepperfry.com?and likes to share his views about eCommerce. He feels that eCommerce is the new future and can be used as a very important tool in marketing.

Managing KPI

In order for any business to be able to effectively starting managing KPI (key performance indicators) they must first decide what these are actually going to be. However when selecting them a business should limit themselves to those factors which they consider to be essential to the business in order for it to achieve its goals.

Another important thing when choosing your KPI’s in order to manage them effectively is a business should keep them to a very small number. By doing this a business is more likely to be able to keep everyone who is involved in the business attention focused on what is required of them in order for them to achieve their goals.

The main reason why many businesses today are using key performance indicators in their business is not only as a way of getting staff to work more productively but it acts in some ways like a carrot on a stick would to a donkey. It also provides staff with a clear understanding of what is required of them in order that the business and they achieve the goals that have been set before them.

Once you have the KPI’s chosen you need to allow all members of staff to know what they are. Certainly one of the quickest and simplest ways of doing this is by sending an email to them or placing them on the company’s intranet system. You may also choose to actually print them off and place them in places where they are prominently displayed such as in the office canteen or in the conference room.

But not only should you be showing the employees what each KPI is you also need to show them over time what progress is being made in order that the targets and goals are being met. The more people are provided with information relating to their KPI target the more motivated they will remain in order to reach them.

Along with telling staff what the key performance indicators are it is important that you allocate a certain role or step in the process to achieving the businesses goals to a particular member. Once you have decided just which member of staff will be dealing with which particular sector of the KPI you then need to spend time looking at the ways in which they can achieve their goal of completing the task. You may find that for some staff members it may well include them undertaking some additional training, but in order for your business to attain its goals this may be necessary.

Certainly the more a business is capable of managing KPI’s then the employees within the company will find it much easier to meet and attain the goals that they have been set. If you keep the above in mind you will find that actually managing yours will be much easier than you first suspected.


P Abbey owns and operates http://www.managementperformanceadvice.com/managingkpi.html Managing Kpi

Lip Sense: Choosing the Right Color

Having moved onwards into the most active arenas of life, the super-woman of today is much more conscious of her appearance. Most opinions are based on first appearances, and this is one clich?, that doesn?t escape their attention. Thus the modern woman pays minute attention to the most intricate details about her look.

Sadly enough, one minor feature that escapes notice is the lips. With impeccable make-up, an ill suiting shade of lip color completely mars the result. So it becomes very important to carefully coordinate the shade of your lipstick with the outfit and the rest of the make up in order to attain that perfect look that shall sweep dozens off their feet.

When out shopping for a lip sense the main things to remember is the texture of the stick and most definitely, the color. The chosen texture is a personal preference. Some women prefer shiny and glossy colors that have the youthful feel to them, while others like better the matte shades that give the subtle look of maturity. Having decided on the texture that would be preferred, the next and extremely important thing to decide would be the color. The trick to that one is painfully simple. Try it on. Many times, the shade looks stunning on the shelf or in the catalogue. But having applied it, it may not seem so much of a show stopper. So before passing it on the billing clerk, make it a point to test it on your self. A lipstick should suit your skin type as well as your complexion. Test it on those points. If confused about the color to pick, choose the one that appeals the most from the stack on the shelf. Pick the one that appears the most attractive one. And try it on. It just might turn to be a very pleasant surprise. However, if you are skeptical about experimentation, then go for ordinary colors. Look up the ones that suit your face. It is by far, the safest option.

There is only so much when picking out the perfect lipstick for you. Having taken sufficient care to take care of these points when out lipstick shopping, you are bound to add the perfect final touches to your look when dressing. So go ahead, look your best and take the world by storm.


Get LipSense? Lip Color from SeneGence. For more information on lipsense check out www.beautiful-lips.com.

Is it Really Necessary to Get an Oil Change Every 3,000 Miles?

Whenever you roll your vehicle through those speedy oil change bays and have the fundamental fluid replaced in your vehicle, they will place a small sticker on the inside of your windshield that will remind you to come back in 3,000 miles. This is a traditional directive from most auto mechanics and shops and has been taken as standard maintenance advice for many years. However, there is new evidence indicating that replacing the oil in your car every 3,000 miles may not be necessary and may even be a waste of money.

If you are curious how often you should get an oil change for your specific make and model of vehicle, the first thing you should do is check the owner’s manual. The manufacturer will provide details about when to change the oil and most newer cars recommend anywhere from 5,000 to 10,000 miles. If you do a lot of highway driving, the number is usually higher than if you spend most of your mileage commuting within the city. Newer vehicles also have indicator lights that will let you know when it’s time to get the fluid changed. If you think about it, if your vehicle manual tells you to change the oil every 10,000 miles and you get it done every 3,000 miles, you are basically throwing away money on 2 out of 3 trips to the auto garage.

If you are still skeptical about the quality of the fluid in your engine and would like a definite answer about when it needs to be changed, you can consider checking the oil quality yourself. Quality sensor monitors can tell you the state of your vehicle fluid within about 30 seconds and the tool does not take a mechanic’s experience to learn. When you pull the dipstick from your oil pan, take note of the color. New oil is an amber color and turns black as it picks up debris from heat and engine wear. If the oil on your dipstick looks black, it’s probably a good time for an oil change.

Taking all that into consideration, the rules slightly change with synthetic oil. Synthetic versions of vehicle fluids are made to last longer than their naturally ground-drilled counterparts. Because of this, they can often be much more expensive and may not be wholly appropriate for the type of vehicle you drive or the type of driving that you do. Be sure to check with the manufacturer or get the advice of a local mechanic before dropping the extra money on synthetic oil.


Get the kind of tips on your oil change Orlando professionals and casual drivers alike can value. For reliable advice on your car?s inner workings, check out: http://www.meineke-orlando.com/

$10,000 Personal Loan For Bad Credit: Making The Cash Make A Difference

Traditional lenders have strict lending policies that make it harder for people with low credit scores to secure a loan. It is understandable, with these lenders simply protecting themselves against perceived risks. Approving a $10,000 personal loan for bad credit management purposes should be almost impossible.

But in fact it is not impossible, and there is a growing range of loan opportunities to bad credit borrowers, even for such large sums. Alternative lenders, especially online lenders, understand that in lending to those eager to improve their financial status, there is less possibility of the loan being defaulted on. Even fast loan approval is granted, if the right boxes have been ticked.

The simple fact of the matter is that any application for a personal loan can be successful if the right information is given, information that can successfully ease lender concerns.

Secured or Unsecured Loans?

There are two basic types of loans to choose, and selecting which to apply for is the first decision that needs to be made. But whether unsecured and secured loans, there are criteria to meet and compromises to make. When seeking a $10,000 personal loan for bad credit, it can be easier to get approval if collateral is provided.

The problem, however, is in finding an item worth $10,000 to offer as collateral, which means that for most of us, an unsecured loan is the best that we can hope for. It is more difficult to get fast loan approval when the lender has little or no security. But with an unsecured loan, income and the ability to repay is all that lender can go on.

Proving an ability to make the scheduled repayments, and establishing a low debt-to-income ratio, are the keys to securing approval. Then, a large personal loan can be accessed.

Building a Strong Application

Constructing a strong application requires some careful thought and pre-planning, especially when its purpose is to convince a lender to grant a $10,000 personal loan for bad credit management. There are several things that can be done to help in this cause, one of which is to state the purpose of the loan. Telling the lender the funds are to be used to clear existing debts can have a positive impact on the application.

Another addition to strengthen the application is a cosigner, or someone who is willing to guarantee the monthly repayments will be made without fail. A cosigner effectively removes the risk factor, and so lenders are more willing to grant fast loan approval. The only conditions for a cosigner to satisfy is that they have an excellent credit history, and the income to handle the repayments should the need arise.

Also, improving the credit score is a good move, though this can take a little time. Getting a series of small personal loans to pay off individual debts, one at a time, will see the score gradually improve.

Terms to Look For

As with all forms of financial deals, the specific terms can be the difference between what is affordable and what is too expensive. When it comes to getting a $10,000 personal loan for bad credit, the terms can be poor, mainly due to the low credit scores of the applicant and the lack of collateral. The terms are usually a higher rate of interest and a low loan limit.

However, fast loan approval is still possible if the application includes the right details – for example, a cosigner and a healthy debt-to-income ratio. Then, the chances of getting a personal loan, even with bad credit, is very strong.


Devora Witts is a certified loan consultant who helps people get approved for Loans for People with Bad Credit and Bad Credit Mortgage Loans. To get aid with your financial situation you can visit her at http://www.badcreditloanservices.com

GPS Fleet Tracking-A Revolutionary System

If you are in fleet management, it is no use worrying over the time bunking by your driving staff. As an answer to all you worries, GPS fleet Tracking System is there. Let us explore more about it.

Time Management
Time constraint is a big problem in fleet management business too. In many cases the owners of fleet vehicles find their drivers deliberately doing overtime. Now with the help of GPS (Global Positioning System) one can keep an eye over the working activities of the driving staff. The overhead costs too can be saved to add more to the profit. If the staff takes longer route deliberately in order to earn bucks in form of overtime, this can be discouraged easily.

Boost up Productivity
GPS infused fleet tracking system is a very powerful at the hands of the fleet owners to draw more profits in the business. Irresponsible working behavior, shirking work and killing time for extra money is prevalent among the drivers of fleet transport segment. These unwanted working behaviors can be handled and monitored by GPS tracking system. The unproductive driving staff thus can be spotted and expelled if necessary. In this way the work productivity is improved and maintained. Experts have recorded an increase in productivity to the tune of 40 per cent while using GPS enabled tracking system.

Big Fuel Savings
Fuel is the key input in the transport segment. It is a precious resource to be saved. Due to the steep rise in the fuel cost the operating costs of the fleet and dispatch activities has also increased worldwide. GPS infused fleet tracking system is greatly useful in saving significant amount of fuel per vehicle in each trip. From the point of view of fuel conservation also this is an important method. The intentional as well as natural reason of the longer route of travel taken by the vehicle drivers can be monitored well

Better Client Satisfaction
The working efficiency of the transport operations are improved manifold with GPS fleet tracking system. This affects positively the operational efficiency of the company making the business cost-effective and profitable. Moreover the customer satisfaction is assured well in addition to cutting down of extra and hidden costs. Like in every business field the better customer satisfaction helps the company to consolidate in the market amid competition.

Efficient Monitoring of Movement
An owner remains regularly in touch with the movement of the vehicles while at a distance. The fuel and time required are greatly minimized. The extra benefit of the tracking system based on GPS system is that the vehicles remains within monitoring reach, thus theft is prevented.

User-friendly Automation
With help op map based fleet tracking system a fleet owner can keep an eagle eye over the vehicle movement via a computer screen. In addition establish two way communications with the fleet drivers over the mobile phone. Important necessary instructions can be conveyed to staff with respect to particular locations along the path. Data recorded through the tracker can be used for scrutiny or inspection later. Even the driving staff may be instructed to adopt a particular route or change one


John Mahoney is an expert on reviewing GPS fleet management equipments and technology. Follow these links to find best gadgets and information on: fleet tracking and GPS fleet tracking system

Hearing Center Treating Hearing Problems in the Aging

Hearing centers and aging go hand in hand for serious hearing loss. An (hearing doctor) can quite simply question their patient, perform a physical examination of the external and middle ear or the inner ear if physical damage in suspected, and they can order an aid that has been fitted and selected according to the specific support that the patient requires. A hearing center is specifically designed for helping to accurately diagnose one of the main causes and types of hearing impairment or loss, prescribe the best device or treatment for hearing assistance and then help patients along their older patients on their journey to improved auditory use.

According to medicine.net, a third to a half of women and men in the retired and elderly portion of society ages 65 and older are living with hearing issues or hearing loss. Hearing issues are commonly seen as one or more difficulties with the processing of sound such as low volumes or interpreting a conversation over background noise. On one hand, hearing issues have always been seen as a part of aging much a diminishment in the function of all other senses and motor skills, but it doesn’t have to be that way. Hearing issues can be treated in a multitude of ways that aren’t invasive or taxing on the individual who requires a little auditory assistance to help them recapture full use of his or her hearing. On the other hand, hearing loss causes normal conversation to sound like mumbles, an inability to distinguish voices in order to follow a conversation, or missed words and signals altogether because of you simply could not hear it. This is when hearing loss becomes a safety issue. Not only is it dangerous for individuals over 65 such as in their seventies and eighties to attempt to drive or travel to new places, they are missing out on their most important relationships. As hearing problems and hearing loss affects one’s independence it can also affect one’s intimacy. Phone conversations can become obsolete as soft sounds and technical interference can make phone calls inaudible to them.

The bad news is that hearing problems and loss can either be caused by preventable measures such as earwax build up and high decibal exposure or unavoidable measures such as a virus, bacteria, heart condition or development of a benign tumor. The good news is that there are a few steps for the retirees and elderly individual who believes that they are dealing with hearing problems or hearing loss. They will first want to visit an otolaryngologist who will evaluate medical history alongside symptoms and a physical examination. From there the patient can visit their local hearing center, on referral to see an audiologist. An audiologist will run a series of tests to measure the patient’s ability to hear, in order to determine the type of problem, damage or loss he or she is experiencing medically, so that it can be treated according to its symptoms and the patient can regain his or her quality of life.


A local Hot Springs AR hearing center?is the resource you need when you’ve been straining to hear conversations?http://www.miracle-ear-hotsprings.com.

What is the importance of Protein Bars?

Everyone wants to eat tasty food especially while growing up without considering whether it is good for the health or not. All you want is to buy every food for your desire and hunger to be satisfied. But as you begin to get older, you will learn that the way you look also depends on what you eat and it will also reflect on how it begins to be felt. Some grown-ups even begin to get conscious concerning the food they take in their body and realize how important protein bars is. But you might also wonder, do I actually need them in order for me to survive?

Low fat protein bars ?could be a good choice for your snack time because they are low in carbohydrates and are actually contained with large amount of protein. They were even regarded as snacks by the health food industry. Choosing them as your snacks is better and great if you like dieting or building muscles. Wondering? Here?s a research and read on.

The researchers of Ohio State University had an experiment by choosing men who were eager to develop their body mass and grouped them into three. Soy protein bar was given to the first group, the next received a whey protein bar and the last got nothing. The result was, of course, both groups who received the best protein bars gained body mass while the last group remained the same. This only proves that an effective way to develop body mass is to take in protein bars.

Possibly you’re asking, will it help a dieter? Dieters must decide to eat protein bars and forget about heavy meal. Ignore the concept of eating just a few large ones but aim to eat a number of small meals because it is better that way, doctors and health food experts suggest, and protein bars now will be a great help. For instance, before lunch time eat a protein bar and eat again later in the afternoon instead of eating heavy meal. Through that, your likelihood of slimming down can be acquired easily.

The bars are useful enough to offer you energy and protein all throughout the day despite the tiring activity you’re doing. But before buying one, it is important for you to read the ingredients first if it is contained with protein because some companies choose to fill them with sugar. In order for you to avoid wasting money, it is necessary to be keen and watchful.


For more information on protein bars?please visit www.mutantnutrition.com today. We have a wide selection of supplements available at the very best prices!

For Efficient Plumbing Services

Now that you have finally
been able to purchase a home of your own, you have to take up the
entire responsibility of maintaining it in a proper manner. This does
not really mean that you get it painted often and rearrange your
furniture. There are other things that need to be attended to like
checking the plumbing on a regular basis and getting the leaks and
the cracks repaired. Overlooking the leaks for a long time can worsen
the problem and that is why, the best option for you is to hire the
services of professional plumbing services. There are a lot of
benefits of hiring a plumber and some of them have been discussed
below.

The best thing about the
plumbing services is, they have a vast amount of knowledge regarding
the subject. They are well trained at their job and no matter how big
or small the job is, they will be able to solve the problem in a very
short span of time. Some people think seeking the assistance of a
plumber is nothing but sheer wastage of money. This, my friend is far
from the truth. There are some people who rush forward to grab the
nearest plunger when they notice a clogged sink or a toilet. If you
are one of them, you need to understand that your efforts will only
be able to solve the problem for the time being. Being your own
plumber is acceptable if and only if you know what you are doing.
Besides, the blockage could only get worse. Therefore it is only wise
to trust the efficiency and the experience of the plumbers in such
matters.

Before hiring the
services of plumbers, you must check whether the professional in
question has a valid license or not. If he does not, there is a fat
chance that he could end up causing a bigger mess up. Only a
registered and an experienced professional will be able to serve you
well and make sure that the job is well done.

If you are looking for
efficient as well as reliable professionals who specialize in
plumbing, Alexandria is where you will be able to find some of the
best ones. Visit Acclaimed
Services
for superior quality services at affordable
rates. These guys have a lot of experience in this field and will be
able to provide a solution for all your plumbing requirements.


Plumbing
Alexandria
– Acclaimed Services
provides the Northern Virginia and surrounding areas with quality
reliable plumbing services including sinks, drains, faucets and more.