Use PGi iMeet for Effective Audio, Web & Video Conferencing

iMeet by PGi seeks to take the complexity out of video conference and make everything as streamlined and simple as possible. This cloud-based system gives the user the ability to access live audio and video conferencing in an intuitive, easy-to-use desktop and mobile application. The iMeet conference room allows each participant to be seen and provide instant feedback, making meetings much more personal and efficient. The standard iMeet live video meeting allows for up to 15 HD video feeds to run simultaneously, making it possible for the entire team to speak together.

For users who require a larger meeting room iMeet has an enterprise XL version that will allow for up to 65 users at a time, as well as, an iMeet Live version that would provide users with a video and web conferencing service for those who will be holding a live event type conference. These two options provide clients with the ability to hold larger team meetings, video conferencing events, all hands calls, and large shareholder meetings.

One of iMeets most productive features is the ability to screen-share, giving the user the chance to go from talking about the material at hand to actually showing everyone else in the conference what they are discussing. iMeet also offers a simple, built-in, cloud-based file sharing system. This storage provides users the ability to share files with one another without having to go outside the application. In Sharing files clients can upload documents to their private meeting room before the call is completed, or could upload files during the meeting itself.

Some other features that make PGi iMeet worth looking into include:

Attendee Feedback
Remote Control Abilities
Private and Group Chat
Recording Meetings
Social Media Connectivity
Apple/Android App

Previously, one of the biggest downsides to iMeet was the inability to customize the virtual conference room for branding. A few backgrounds were available to be chosen from, but it was very difficult to brand your conference room specifically for your company. Today iMeet has given clients the ability to brand the room as they choose, showcasing their personal company information. Additionally users are now able to select which applications they share in the screen sharing function. Previously WebEx and GoToMeeting were some of the only services that had provided this feature, but with recent updates users are now able to select whether the share their entire screen, an application, or a selected part of their screen.

ConferenceShopper?provides?PGi iMeet service that allows users for conducting face-to-face meetings using HD video, gives ability to share screen, customize virtual conference room and many other features that make it worth using.?Contact us today to discuss your requirements and find out how can we help you to connect easily around the world.

Common Exhibit Marketing Mistakes: Ten Tips on How to Avoid Them

The key to great exhibiting is marketing. But marketing is a very inexact science that leaves room for a multitude of errors to occur. The following are 10 of the most common marketing mistakes that exhibitors often make. Learn to avoid them and you will increase your chances for a successful tradeshow.

1. Have A Proper Exhibit Marketing Plan

Having both a strategic exhibit marketing and tactical plan of action is a critical starting point. In order to make tradeshows a powerful dimension your company?s overall marketing operation, there must be total alignment between the strategic marketing and your exhibit marketing plan. Tradeshows should not be a stand-alone venture. Know and understand exactly what you wish to achieve – increasing market share with existing users; introducing new products/services into existing markets or into new markets; or introducing new products/services into new markets. This is the nucleus on which to build.

2. Have A Well-Defined Promotional Plan

A significant part of your marketing includes promotion ? pre-show, at-show and post-show. Most exhibitors fail to have a plan that encompasses all three areas. Budget is naturally going to play a major role in deciding what and how much promotional activity is possible. Developing a meaningful theme or message that ties into your strategic marketing plan will then help to guide promotional decisions. Know whom you want to target and then consider having different promotional programs aimed at the different groups you are interested in attracting. Include direct mail, broadcast faxes, advertising, PR, sponsorship, and the Internet as possible ways to reach your target audience.

3. Use Direct Mail Effectively

Direct mail is still one of the most popular promotional vehicles exhibitors use. From postcards to multi-piece mailings, attendees are deluged with invitations to visit booths. Many of the mailings come from show management?s lists and as a result, everyone gets everything. To target the people you want visit your booth, use your own list of customers and prospects–it?s the best one available. Design a piece that is totally benefit-oriented and makes an impact. Mail three pieces at regular intervals prior to the show, starting about four weeks out, to help ensure your invitation is seen. Wherever possible, use first-class mail. There?s nothing worse than a mailing that arrives after the show is over.

4. Give Visitors An Incentive To Visit Your Booth

Whatever promotional vehicles you use, make sure that you give visitors a reason to come and visit you. With a hall overflowing with fascinating products/services, combined with time constraints, people need an incentive to come and visit your booth. First and foremost their primary interest is in ?what?s new!? They are eager to learn about the latest technologies, new applications, or anything that will help save them time and/or money. Even if you don?t have a new product/service to introduce, think about a new angle to promote your offerings.

5. Have Giveaways That Work

Tied into giving visitors an incentive to visit your booth is the opportunity to offer a premium item that will entice them. Your giveaway items should be designed to increase your memorability, communicate, motivate, promote or increase recognition of your company. Developing a dynamite giveaway takes thought and creativity. Consider what your target audience wants, what will help them do their job better, what they can?t get elsewhere, what is product/service related and educational. Think about having different gifts for different types of visitors. Use your website to make an offer for visitors to collect important information, such as an executive report, when they visit your booth. Giveaways should be used as a reward or token of appreciation for visitors participating in a demonstration, presentation or contest, or as a thank-you for qualifying information about specific needs etc.

6. Use Press Relations Effectively

Public relations is one of the most cost-effective and successful methods for generating large volumes of direct inquiries and sales. Before the show ask show management for a comprehensive media list, and find out which publications are planning a special show edition. Send out newsworthy press releases focusing on what?s new about your product/service, or highlighting a new application or market venture. Compile press kits for the press office that include information about industry trends, statistics, new technology or production information. Also include good product photos and key company contacts. Have staff members at the booth who are specifically assigned to interact with the media

7. Differentiate Your Products/Services

Too many exhibitors are happy to use the ?me too? marketing approach. Examine their marketing plans and there?s an underlying sameness about them. With shows that attract hundreds of exhibitors, there are very few that seem to ?stand out from the crowd.? Since memorability is an integral part of a visitors? show experience, you should be looking at what makes you different and why a prospect should buy from you. This is of particular concern with generic products in your industry. Every aspect of your exhibit marketing plan, including your promotions, your booth and your people should be aimed at making an impact and creating curiosity.

8. Use The Booth As An Effective Marketing Tool

On the show floor your exhibit makes a strong statement about who your company is, what you do and how you do it. The purpose of your exhibit is to attract visitors so that you can achieve your marketing objectives. In addition to it being an open, welcoming and friendly space, there needs to be a focal point and a strong key message that communicates a significant benefit to your prospect. Opt for large graphics rather than reams of copy. Pictures paint a thousand words while very few exhibitors will take the time to read. Your presentations or demonstrations are a critical part of your exhibit marketing. Create an experience that allows visitors use as many of their senses as possible. This will help to enhance memorability.

9. Realize That Your People Are Your Marketing Team

Your people are your ambassadors. They represent everything your company stands for, so choose them well. Brief them beforehand and make sure that they know: why you are exhibiting; what you are exhibiting and what you expect from them. Exhibit staff training is essential for a unified and professional image. Make sure that they sell instead of tell; don?t try to do too much; understand visitor needs; don?t spend too much time; and know how to close the interaction with a commitment to follow-up.
Avoid overcrowding the booth with company representatives. Have strict rules regarding employees visiting the show and insist staffers not scheduled for booth duty stay away until their assigned time. Assign specific tasks for company executives working the show.

10. Follow-Up Promptly

The key to your tradeshow success is wrapped up in the lead-management process. The best time to plan for follow-up is before the show. Show leads often take second place to other management activities that occur after being out of the office for several days. The longer leads are left unattended, the colder and more mediocre they become. It is to your advantage to develop an organized, systematic approach to follow-up. Establish a lead handling system, set time lines for follow-up, use a computerized database for tracking, make sales representatives accountable for leads given to them, and then measure your results.

Written by Susan A. Friedmann,CSP, The Tradeshow Coach, Lake Placid, NY, author: ?Meeting & Event Planning for Dummies,? working with companies to improve their meeting and event success through coaching, consulting and training. Go to to sign up for a free copy of ExhibitSmart Tips of the Week.

Quick Red Ant Control in the Vicinity

Fire ants, sometimes referred to as simply red ants, are stinging ants of which there are over 280 species worldwide. Red ants are a complete annoyance when it comes to them building their colonies throughout ones back and front yard.?

To keep ants from entering the house (or anywhere else) sprinkle baby powder on entry points. The ants won’t cross and it is safe around?pets?and children. Bonus, smells nice too!

Use a solution of water and bleach and spray entire path ants take, you have to lose the scent they follow. Keep a spray bottle of it handy and spray their paths into your house.

Some people use lemon water made by adding 1 tablespoon of lemon juice to 1 quart of water. Spray the ants paths into your house.

See pesticide free method to?get rid of ants:

Uncooked Grits or Cream of Wheat

Uncooked grits or cream of wheat sprinkled on the fire ant hill will work very effectively. Once the fire ants eat the grits or cream of wheat, it will expand in their stomachs and kill them immediately. Once this happens the population of fire ants is completely annihilated.

You need a 2 pound bag or box of?Instant Grits?and a 1 pound bag of sugar. Mix your ingredients together in a large bag and your ready to go?ant?hunting. If you have fire ants in the yard go up to the ants mound and put about two heaping spoon fulls of your mixture directly on top of the mound. Check the mound in 2-3 days. If you still see any ants add another spoon of the mixture to the top of the mound. It will get rid of the ants like you won’t believe. Believe it or not the mixture works and works very well. Just remember it must be the instant grits that you use. The long cook grits will not work.

The Ants eat the Instant Grits and it expands inside of them and the ant simply explodes. Yes explodes. Don’t believe me put a few ants in a jar and feed them Instant Grits. It will kill them quickly.

The Sugar is added for extra bait. Most all Ants love Sugar. And it attracts them well. So be sure to mix the sugar with the Instant Grits. It is after all their last meal. They will carry the Instant Grits down into the nest and feed the Queen Ant. When they do she will simply explode and the egg laying is over. The other ants will also eat the instant grits and will they will die shortly.

Boiling Water, Salt & Plant Pot

Get a plant pot and place it over a fire ant hill. Take 2 cups of boiling water, with 1/3 cup of salt and pour into the plant pot that is covering the fire ant hill. Wait about 15 minutes until all the fire ants have died and move on to the next hill and repeat process

For more helptul tips on proper control, check out our main page here:

Auckland ant controller

Published by Graeme Stephens owner of?Pest Control Auckland?and has proudly been providing the following?professional services since 1987: pest control, fly control, flea control, insect, cockroach, wasp, bee, flies, fleas, bed?bug control, ant control

Extreme Lightweight Trainers

Lunarlite Foam, which was released in 2008, was a foamed damping technology. This is an excellent shock absorption technology lighter than others in the Nike’s development history. Many brands in this area have their special science and technology so as foam cushioning is not a new invention. The science and technology is usually composed of the shoes bottom, which is made of the traditional foaming materials to improve the foam hole to make them more delicate.
Fire makes sweet malt-someone use 36 years to study a kind of science and technology. For the successful Lunarlite Foam NASA technology is cost thirty-six years by Nike. Before Lunarlite Foam applied in the sports shoes mass production, the engineering designers spent almost their half life time to solve this kind of material and the inherent problems. Born in NASA’s lab with a high cost, the material’s effect will degrade when exposed in light, air and water which make it hard to be put into mass production. The material is easily being shrink. If the material is blown into foam, it will be frozen to keep itself from deformation. The material becomes more stable and easier to find Phylon-the right wrapped foam material, which is Nike’s most commonly used bottom material after the engineers readjusted its organic formula. The race running shoes-Lunar Racer was first show itself in the Lunarlite Foam debut in may, 2008. With Lunarglide come into the market in the year of 2009, consumers get more familiar with this technology.
“Feel like walking on the moon”-this is the most flattering evaluation obtained by Lunar. In the minds of consumers, the ultimate sports shoes must have the following properties: excellent shock absorption, high stability and sufficient light weight. The characteristics of stability and damping effect will always disappear if light acts as the main feature of the sports shoes. As the enemy of durability, lightweight can make the extreme lightweight shoes be quickly forgot by people. The function of Lunarlite Foam is to make the shoes wear more lightweight and elasticity. After tried on the LunarGlide sample shoes, athletes said they can not help themselves to run out when wearing them.
It’s a very complex structure when the shoes working. Because of the relative low density, the Lunar has more soft foot feeling, excellent elasticity and light weight compare with the ordinary EVA and Phylon. Water, air and light must be far away from this kind of material. In order keep the stability of the material, the designer find two ways. First, we will talk about the Phylon, which is used to wrap the Lunarlite foam shell. The shell is designed into a layer fold shape, to reduce capacity loss when the foot touches the ground and to alleviate the harmful impact. With the help of the unique Dynamic Supporting System, Lunar running shoes can adapt to the runners different foot situation.
The pursuit of higher stability and lower production cost is innovation. People don’t know when it first started, the Lunarlite technology disappeared in Nike shoes, and the Lunar Technology shoes also gradually started to decrease. Nike’s designer said that because of the high cost, the Lunar mass production is difficult to go on. At the same time, Lunarlite materials will unavoidable depredated in practical use over time. In order to solve this problem, the Nike designer quickly find solutions to make Lunarlite better. It is joined with Phylon formula in the lunar foam. Today’s Lunarlite technology can not only reduces lunar sports shoes high cost, but also improve the stability and durability.
Lunar technology will develop itself to become the air cushion shoes milestone.

Nike Free Run 2 Cheap shoes are one of the best available shoes in the market. Buy Nike Free Run 2 shoes at affordable prices online and save extra cash.

A Course for All – Fire Risk Assessment

Fire risk assessment can be defined as estimating the risk of fire occurrence during any particular course of time. It is used to reduce the loss of life and property. The purpose of fire risk assessment is to identify possible fire hazards, identify the people who are at risk, evaluate the risk, reduce the risks from these hazards to an acceptable level and identify what action one needs to take to ensure the safety on ones premises if in case fire breaks out.

One needs a whole lot of patience and clear thinking at the time of havoc as producing a fire risk assessment is a logical and systematic process and one needs to go through each and every step before stepping into next one. If a fire marshal/warden is responsible for the safety of a big complex, mall etc, one should split the area into big chunks. One should have the basic fire training including everything about the emergency plan, fire training on the use of fire extinguishers and other fighting equipment, importance of keeping escape routes clear and fire doors closed, special arrangement for disabled people, more detailed knowledge of the whole premises and a responsibility for ensuring that visitors and public get out of the building.

The best way to evaluate the proficiency of ones emergency plan and fire training is to carry out a fire drill. Sort of a real emergency is the only method to measure the complications occurring and state of emotions of the staff whether they are doing well or not. Surprise drills are preferable to see the actual picture of whether people really do understand their role.

Fire extinguishers play a very important role in calming fire. There are various types of fire extinguishers available in market for different purposes like water fire extinguishers are used only on solid material like paper, wood, textiles, etc. Carbon dioxide extinguishers are perfect for involving electrical equipment without further damaging the electric piece. Foam extinguishers are used on flammable liquids like petrol, diesel fire, etc. Power fire extinguishers are used on almost all kings of fire but may damage the equipment along too. Wet chemical fire extinguishers are ideal for fire involving cooking oils like butter, ghee, etc. Fire blankets are also a very good option to put off fire.

To leave no chance for fire to occur one must do regular inspections and testing, correct fuse ratings, should not overload equipment, use electrically advanced devices and clean them on regular basis. One can also join fire assessment course provided in western countries to be a professional in this field.

RBs provides fire marshal, ? fire extinguisher training and >fire risk assessment.

Become Technologically Savvy With The Latest Technology News

Technology has become a vital part of our lives, since it does not only save us time to do things that we want, but also help us do it with more accuracy and precision. Technology at the same time has made the world we live in a smaller place by making communication and traveling easy and a breeze for one and all.

Technology did not only brought us closer, but, it also made us more complete and better equipped to do things than what we would have been previously doing without these innovations and advancements in our lives.

To this date, technology has made people become more aware of the things that are happening in our surroundings thanks to tech blogs. Now, it made people more aware of what is happening around us, the latest gadgets, emerging and popular culture technology that we can all use for our own good. More and more people are enjoying the benefits of technology that’s made available in just a few clicks of a mouse through leading online technology blogs and websites.

The latest technology news have made us realize our fullest potential, explore more on what we can do, and make our world a much better place to live in.

Kids as we may have known are more daring and bold these days than our age way back. Technology has made a significant push on their personality because information is made available right on their fingertips. With the rate tech developments are going on these days, it would no longer be very challenging to keep abreast with the present generation and so the term generation gap will be put to rest for good.

The challenge now lies in the fact that in order for us to keep abreast with the latest changes and improvements in technology, we must keep ourselves up to date with the latest tech news in the market. Every day news and news we see on TV are not similar to technology news we get online as it may not contain the most exhaustive and insightful information we so much needed.

If you are a voracious reader, wants to improve your horizon, and have a passion for technology, then all you have to do is look for the right technology blog that will deliver you the best tech news like the future technology for new world where all news are served hot, right on the dot, and covers only the latest tech news that you will ever need.

Technologies these days help reduce both work and living costs and it increases our productivity on a daily basis. So it is very important for all of us to know about the latest news in the field of technology.

To do this we can all keep track of the latest technology news with the help of technology blogs. So, what are you waiting for? Be tech savvy now by getting the latest news only from the tech experts in tech news in the UK today.



Get the latest?tech news today at the UK tech blog at:

Ayurvedic Treatment For Over Masturbation Effects That Is Effective

Ayurvedic treatment for over masturbation effects is one of the most useful solutions and this is why most men are going for the same. Sex in men will get driven by means of nutrients, neuro-chemicals and hormones. Hormones and neuro-chemicals cannot be replenished properly with the regular practice of masturbation as a result of which lovemaking activities get disturbed to a great extent. If you are looking for the most effective ayurvedic treatment for dealing over masturbation effects then nothing can be the best one other than NF Cure capsules.

Ayurvedic researchers are trying to make NF Cure capsules more advanced by adding different useful herbs and some of them are ashwagandha, shilajit, kesar, long, pipal, swarna bhasma, lauh bhasma, shatavari, jaiphal, kavach beech and others. If you check out the online reviews then you will come to know that many men have got satisfactory results from this kind of ayurvedic treatment for over masturbation effects. Mood swings and energy loss are the two commonest symptoms that arise from over masturbation.

NF Cure capsules will help you to get rid of over masturbation. With the regular consumption of these herbal capsules, the ratio of over masturbation can be minimized. On the other hand, overall health condition can be improved with the consistent supply of different kinds of essential nutrients. In fact, the hormones generating sexual sensation can be effectively regulated or controlled by means of these ayurvedic capsules. Ayurvedic treatment for over masturbation effects is gaining the highest fame as the capsules can be used by men of varied ages.

Male organ shrinkage is also quite common these days which results from increased masturbation. This shrinkage is caused as a result of weakening of ejaculatory nerves and the weakening of these nerves leads to the decrease of semen volume. Erection is also badly affected by the same. Ejaculation can be stabilized due to the intake of NF Cure capsules. In this regard, Shilajit capsules also cater good results. Shilajit capsules are mainly taken for getting increased stamina, energy and endurance which are necessary for enjoying bed performances.

Shilajit capsules can also assist men to get rid of different mental disturbances that come in the way of erection and ejaculation. Stress, tension and other mental disturbances can be tactfully handled by these capsules and if you want increased energy for sexual intimacy then this herbal capsule is the most appropriate option. NF Cure capsules include essential nutrients while Shilajit capsules cater energized components and thus both these capsules create great combinations which have got powerful effects.

Both these capsules have got powerful botanical formulation and this formulation easily get absorbed within body as soon they are consumed and this is one of the major reasons that men can get instant results. If you are not being able to complete your bed performance properly then you might face great troubles like back pain, headache, fatigue and others. You can also get assistance from Mast Mood oil in this regard but it is for external usage only.

Read about Over Masturbation Cure Treatment. Also know Herbal Treatment For Over Masturbation. Read about Over Masturbation Treatment Remedy.

How Much Does a Central Heating System Cost?






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A central
heating system is a device that provides warm inside a house or a building. It
is beneficial to use during cooler days like the winter season. With this kind
of device, every person in a room can enjoy spending time playing board games,
talking to each other, doing some work stuffs or school projects, reading
books, watching television and other normal activities even if it is snowy and
chilly outside. This is one of the few benefits in using a central heating
device. Another one is the opportunity to save money when using it. Yes, there
is a way for you to reduce the amount of your monthly bills with heating


Cost of a Heater


The cost
of a heating and cooling system varies depending on some factors. There are
brands that are costly, while others are inexpensive and obviously affordable.
There are also low priced heaters that are manufactured by leading brands. The
low and high cost of this device mainly varies based on the features and quality.
It is not necessarily about the brand that makes it expensive or not.


So, if
you are going to buy a heating system, you make an estimate first before you
decide on what to choose. It is important that you compare costs of heaters
from one brand or model to another. This is what you must do before you
purchase a heater.


Cost of a Heating System


You also
need to pay if you need to install a new heating device. However, it is not
expensive at all to spend some money for this one. Yet, you must be careful if
the charges given to you are overpriced or somewhat high in price. You have to
compare one cost of services from a certain company or contractor to another so
you can see which option offers the most affordable.


Bills on a Monthly Basis


So, let?s
presume you have bought and installed your new central heating system. The
amount of money you have to spend does not end there. In fact, you may spend
more than what you expect. The usage of this kind of system to have warm air
can somewhat cost you a certain amount of money. During winter season and even
cooler days during spring or fall, you definitely need to use a central heating
device to keep you warm. You cannot avoid using it if the weather is cold.
However, you can avoid earning a huge amount of monthly bills if you do not use
or switch it on if it is already warm. You must turn your heater only if you
need to.


overall cost of a heating system is surely reduced if you know how to do so.
You must be able to select the best heater that is energy saver. To reduce your
spending more, you have to be wise in using this system. It is on your own
control to save money when it comes to the use of a central heating and cooling


After learing the price of the central heating (in Dutch the term is Centrale verwarming) systems, I think it is a good idea to read more about their maintenance.

Stop Frowning: Common Uses And Side Effects Of Botox

We laugh and cry, we smile and frown. As we age, those emotions of life
begin to etch their memories onto our faces and leave their marks as
wrinkles. Most women (and some men) use cleansing creams and beauty
lotions to minimize the appearance of wrinkles. The health and beauty
aisles at the drug stores and grocery stores are overflowing with
cleansers, exfoliators, moisturizers, toners and makeup. Yet no
temporary fix has proven to be as effective as Botox.

Botox is a neurotoxin protein that comes from clostridium botulinum and
is injected under the skin. While its use is primarily cosmetic, this
protein is also used to help in several medical applications. When this
protein is injected, it helps to block nerve impulses and thus wrinkles
soften and the skin is smoother. These injections are very popular; in
fact, they have become the most popular cosmetic procedure that is
performed in the United States.

The effects of these injections are temporary, and only require a few
visits to a physician each year. After the office visit, you can expect
to see results within a week (although some patients see results within
just a few days). The wrinkle-smoothing results of the injections
usually last from three to six months, but some people’s results last a
little longer.

Many different types of facial imperfections can be helped with botox
injections. Glabellar lines (frown lines on the forehead), crows feet,
laugh lines and forehead creases are some of the features that can be
temporarily smoothed out with injections. Visible signs of aging can be
lessened and your self-confidence can be boosted with each visit.

Like all cosmetic procedures, the risk of side effects does exist.
However, given the popularity of this product, the side effects are
fairly minimal. Generally, some bruising may occur at the injection
site. This is not an effect of the medicine, but an effect of the
injection itself. Also, some people have reported headaches or flu-like
symptoms, but these are usually mild and not severe.

Botox injections also have their place in medical procedures. Many
people have had relief from eyelid spasms, neck spasms, migraine
headaches and eye muscle spasms thanks to the same injection that
smoothes wrinkles. The toxin works similarly in these areas as it does
in cosmetic areas of the face.

There has been some concern raised with the fact that Botox is made from
a toxin and thus a toxin is being injected into the body. While it is
true that this toxin causes botulism, the injections are given at a much
lower (and diluted) dose than that which makes people ill. These
injections are safe when administered by licensed professionals in a
clinic or office setting.

It is important to note that home parties where similar results are
advertised cannot be considered safe. Only trained professionals should
be administering these injections, so seek out an office that is
certified and doctors who have the proper credentials. Like any medical
procedure, there are risks involved. However, these risks are
dramatically minimized when the procedures take place in a credible

In Peachtree City
is a popular option for those wishing to remove the
signs of aging. To learn more about how you can enhance you look, visit:

Trouble-shooting Hard Drive Problems – Part 2

The article explains how to reconstruct the Volume Boot Record and will touch briefly on multiple-partition drives. This information will help solve some very common problems encountered in a computer service department. This article is designed to work with a system that has a single drive using a FAT 16 structure (all DOS and older Windows systems, some Windows NT), and no drive overlay.

A common problem with hard drives is the error message “MISSING OPERATING SYSTEM.”

Typically what this means is that critical data is missing or damaged in two possible locations. The first is the Master Boot Record (MBR). This data area contains error messages and pointer information that specifies the location of the second critical data area, the Volume Boot Record (VBR). The VBR contains the operating system specific data for the format of that particular partition on the drive. If either of these two critical data areas is damaged, by a virus, controller failure, etc., then the drive will not be accessible through the operating system.

The normal response to this error message is to boot to a floppy disk and to re-partition the drive (probably using FDISK) and thereby totally removing any possibility for recovery of the data on that drive, except by dedicated data recovery software or a data recovery facility. If applicable, the following technique will help save time, money, and frustration.

The first step to data recovery (covered in great detail in the first article of this series) is to verify the location of the existing partition information. For the purposes of this article, it will be assumed that the FAT structure and the root directory are intact, there is only one partition, and that only the MBR and the VBR were damaged. Using Micro-Scope, enter the Fixed Disk Editor menu and select the fixed disk that is being repaired. Using the Find menu option, locate all the sectors that contain the string “55 AA” (see Step Four of the first article in this series), and then verify that the FAT structures are intact (see Step Seven). Note on a scratch paper the values (in Cylinder, Head, Sector format) where this string appears. These values will be used later in the reconstruction process.

Rebuilding the MBR

Using the Fixed Disk Editor in Micro-Scope, locate and read Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 1. This should be the location of the corrupt Master Boot Record. Press “M” to modify the sector and enter 0’s for the entire sector, effectively wiping all the data from this sector. Press ESC, then “W” to write the data, and “Y” to confirm the write operation. Then exit the Fixed Disk Editor and select the Rebuild Master Boot Record menu option. Press “Y” to confirm this operation. The fixed drive now has a completely corruption-free MBR available for use during the reconstruction of the VBR.

Rebuilding the VBR

There is a simple method for rebuilding the VBR. Copy the data from a like fixed disk or a similar-sized fixed disk with the identical operating system (the versions must be the same.) There are two approaches for obtaining this data. The first is to install the second drive in the system, reboot Micro-Scope, and copy the sectors directly from the “healthy” drive to the drive being reconstructed. The second method is to copy the sectors from the “healthy” drive to a floppy diskette and transfer that diskette to the machine containing the drive being reconstructed. The data can be copied to any sector on the floppy disk. Just note where this data is stored on the floppy disk so that it may be easily retrieved when copying it back to the drive being reconstructed. In either case, the VBR is located at Cylinder 0, Head 1, Sector 1 on the “healthy” drive. Copy this data to the same location on the damaged drive. Exit the Fixed Disk Editor.

The drive now has a clean MBR and VBR, and with a few modifications to the values stored in these data areas, the drive will be fully reconstructed.

Access the VBR in the Partition Editor. Some of the values in this area will remain the same. These are: Bytes Per Sector, Reserved Sectors, Number of Copies of FAT, Max # of Root Dir. Entries, Media Description Byte, and Volume Boot Signature. Sectors Per Cluster may or may not need to be changed. Put the cursor over this value and press F1 for a formula that will help determine the proper value. Use this same F1 procedure for determining the Total Number of Sectors. This value should be the same as the value for Number of Sectors in the partition table.

The Sectors per FAT value equals the number of sectors from the beginning of the first FAT to the beginning of the second FAT (as described in the first article in this series.) The values for Sectors per Track and Number of Hidden Sectors should be identical to the values in the MBR. The Number of Heads is either the same as the value in the MBR or the same as the value of the Number of Heads in the partition table plus one (refer to the first article in the series for more information on this topic.) After completing this information, the drive should either be bootable or accessible via a bootable diskette. If this is not the case, e-mail the Technical Support department for further verification of the problem.

Reconstructing Multiple Partition Volumes

In some cases, the drive may have been partitioned into smaller, logical partitions. If this is the case, the chance of this data being corrupt is slim, and correct Head and Sector values are readily available from these areas. To find the second partition on the drive, use the Fixed Disk Editor in Micro-Scope to view the sector containing the “55 AA” string. This sector should appear after the first VBR, so don’t confuse the two. The second MBR should start on Head 0, Sector 1 of a given cylinder. Accordingly, the second VBR will appear on Head 1, Sector 1, and the FAT on Head 1, Sector 2, etc. By adjusting the first MBR in Micro-Scope so that the value for Starting Cylinder, Head and Sector is equal to the location of the second MBR, the VBR is now accessible through the Micro-Scope partition editor. Use these values to reconstruct the second MBR. The only value that will need recalculating is the Start Absolute Sector in the second MBR.

As outlined in the first article in the series, the Start Absolute Sector is the same as the value for Ending Sector. This is not the case with a second partition. The Start Absolute Sector is the number of sectors prior to the VBR. The formula for the Start Absolute Sector is as follows: (Number of Sectors) + (the Start Absolute Sector of the previous partition) + (Sectors per Track). This formula will work for any additional logical partitions.

If, during partition reconstruction, there is something not understood, e-mail the Micro 2000 Tech Support Dept. before making changes to the drive.

Disclaimer – The Micro 2000 Tech Tip is a free service providing information only. While we use reasonable care to see that this information is correct, we do not guarantee it for accuracy, completeness or fitness for a particular purpose. Micro 2000, Inc. shall not be liable for damages of any kind in connection with the use or misuse of this information.

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